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# Quantum theory

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Check out https://youtu.be/Hs_chZSNL9I Quantum World – Full Documentary HD http://www.advexon.com For more science fiction! Subscribe for more videos… Quantum mechanics (QM, also known as quantum physics or quantum theory) is a branch of physics that deals with nanoscopic physical phenomena where the action is in Planck’s constant order. It departs from classical mechanics mainly in the quantum range of atomic and subatomic length scales. Quantum mechanics provides a mathematical description of the behavior and interactions of dual particles of energy and matter and waves. Quantum mechanics provides an essentially useful framework for many features of the modern periodic table of elements, including the behavior of atoms during chemical bonding և has played a significant role in the development of many modern technologies. In advanced topics in quantum mechanics, some of these behaviors are macroscopic (see Macroscopic quantum phenomena) and occur only at extreme (ie, very low or very high) energies or temperatures (for example, when superconducting magnets are used). For example, the angular momentum of an electron connected to an atom or molecule is quantized. In contrast, the angular momentum of an unbound electron is not quantized. In the context of quantum mechanics, the wave-particle duality of energy and matter քը the uncertainty principle provide a common understanding of the behavior of photons, electrons and other objects of atomic scale. The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. The mathematical function, the wave function, provides information about the probability amplitude, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. Mathematical manipulations of wave function usually involve bra-ket notation, which requires understanding of complex numbers and linear functions. The formulation of a wave function treats a particle as a quantum harmonic oscillator, and mathematics is like describing acoustic resonance. Many of the results of quantum mechanics are not easily understood from the point of view of classical mechanics. For example, in the quantum mechanical model, the lowest energy state of the system, the ground state, is not zero, in contrast to the more “traditional” ground state, which has zero kinetic energy (all particles are at rest). Instead of the traditional static, unchanging zero-energy state, quantum mechanics allows for much more dynamic, chaotic possibilities, according to John Wheeler. The earliest versions of quantum mechanics were developed in the first decade of the 20th century. It was around this time that atomic theory պ the corpuscular theory of light (as updated by Einstein) was first widely accepted as a scientific fact. These latter theories can be considered as quantum theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation, respectively. The early quantum theory was significantly reformulated in the mid-1920s by Werner Heisenberg, Max Bourne, and Pascual Jordan (Matrix Mechanics); Louis de Broglie և Erwin Schrոդdinger (wave mechanics); AND Wolfgang Paulin and Satiendra Nat Boz (subatomic particle statistics). Moreover, Nils Bory Copenhagen commentary became widespread. In 1930, quantum mechanics was further integrated and formalized by the works of David Hilbert, Paul Dirac, and John von Neumann, with a greater focus on the quantitative nature of quantum mechanics measurements, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality, and philosophical assumptions. About the role of the observer. Quantum mechanics has permeated many aspects of 20th century physics and other subjects, including quantum chemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics, and quantum information science. Much of 19th-century physics was re-evaluated as the “classical frontier” of quantum mechanics and its more advanced developments in quantum field theory, string theory, and speculative quantum gravity.

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